Below is a list of Terminology you may come across in the publishing industry and the various graphic art processes involved. The relevant meanings are featured here in alphabetical order with more detailed explanations provided where necessary.
Words with meanings accessed via an external link are in BLUE
In the publishing world, attribution is the action of ascribing a work or remark to a particular author, artist, or person. For example if someone supplies you with an image or artwork for your book, you may be required to give attribution in the print copy by way of an acknowledgement in your copyright section. Attributions for authors can also be made on an internal ccknowledgements page. It will depend on the artist or author.
Wnen your subscription plan automatically renews at the end of your plan’s expiry period. It’s the hassle-free way to ensure your service is uninterrupted and means won’t need to do a thing to recharge your plan each month. However if you wish to discontinue the service you MUST cancel the Auto Renew feature before the expiry date. You will usually be notified by email of the upcoming expiry datewith instructions or link to cancel Auto Renew if so desired.
The bleed edge is the external margin positioned beyond the trim line. This is usually a standard requirement with printers but the amount can vary between 3 – 5mm. All artwork that meets the trim edge, must be extended to the bleed edge. That way, when the pages of your book are trimmed, the background colours or images will extend right to the very edge of the page.
An embedded image is an image that is re-stored within the new file you’re creating.
- Become a part of the new file
- Increase the size of the file
- Are not affected by ANY changes to the original file.
- Don’t get lost as they are embedded in the new file
- Negate sending seperate images in same file folder when emailing
FILE EXTENSIONS – MEANINGS
VECTOR IMAGE FORMATS
- PDF Portable Document Format
- SVG Scalable Vector Graphic
- AI Adobe Illustrator
- EPS Encapsulated Post Script
RASTER IMAGE FORMATS
- JPG or JPEG Joint Photographics Expert Group
- BMP Bitmap
- PNG Portable Network Graphic
- GIF Graphics Interchange Format
- TIFF Tagged Image File Format
FILE EXTENSIONS USES
PDF stands for Portable Document Format. This type of file captures all the elements of a printed document as an electronic image. You can navigate through the document to view it. You can also print a copy or forward it to someone else. PDF files are created using Adobe Acrobat , Acrobat Capture, or similar products. The Inkscape file extension is SVG (scalable vector graphic). However you can save as a PDF file too amongst a range of other formats.
Scalable Vector Graphics is a vector based format image for two-dimensional graphics. It has support for interactivity and animation. Inkscape, the free vector program used here runs SVG format.
The AI extension stands for and is used by Adobe Illustrator and is a proprietary file format developed for Adobe Illustrator Artwork to represent single page vector based drawings in EPS or PDF formats.
A vector graphics file extension for a graphics file format used in vector based images in Adobe Illustrator. EPS stands for Encapsulated PostScript. EPS files can contain text and graphics. Inkscape files can also be saved as EPS files as it is a vector program.
JPG or JPEG Joint Photographics Expert Group
PNG Portable Network Graphic
GIF Graphics Interchange Format
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
A linked image is an image that is linked to an external file or folder, like a shortcut on your computer.
- Are not a part of the new file so the file size is smaller
- Can be easily updated
- Replace existing ones automatically when updated
- Can be lost as you cannot move to another folder without re-linking
- Must be in same file folder as corresponding artwork if emailing
A point is a typographical term for a unit of measure. It is roughly equivalent to 1/72 of an inch. Points are understood and used extensively by everyone in the publishing trade, particularly in design, typesetting, and printing. They are most commonly used with type specifications. Word uses point sizes to specify the height of all the fonts it uses. Thus, when you use a 12-point type, you are using one that occupies a character box approximately 12/72 (or 1/6) of an inch high. Likewise, 72-point type uses a character box that is about one inch tall.
PRINT READY PDF
A print ready PDF is a file ready for printing. All size parameters and bleed margins must be met when providing a print ready file.
A raster image is made up of pixels. These are stored as a series of tiny dots which have each been assigned a colour and that form a pattern in a grid that makes up the whole image. The amount of pixels in relation to the height and width of the image is called the resolution. Each pixel is actually a very small square and when you zoom in on a raster image, you can see the individual pixels that make up the image. Raster or bitmap images can be edited by erasing or changing the color of individual pixels using a program such as Adobe Photoshop. The resolution for these images is a minimum of 300 dpi which is as clear as the naked eye can see without noticing any distortion, blurriness or pixellation.
To convert a vector image stored as an outline into pixels or what is known as raster format.
See DPI. Resolution refers to the clarity with which a digital image is viewed, or the DPI. A standard pair of eyes see at a resolution of 300dpi.
SAVE or SAVE AS (Which one to use?)
These two commands in the menus of modern computer applications have confused many users. Which one do you use and when? Quite simply, what’s the difference?
Use Save when you’re editing an existing document and you want to preserve your changes as you go. Save replaces the original file. Also use Save as often as you can in the course of editing a document to store your changes and keep them from getting lost in case something goes wrong.
Use Save As when creating a brand new document for the first time. It is also used when you want to clone an original and or make some changes and rename it something else. Save As leaves the original file unchanged. Also use Save As to take an existing document (a good example of something you want to build on, a template you’ve created for this purpose, etc.) and create a new document based on that original. Save As will ask you for the name and location of this new document.
An online services subscription is an agreement to purchase a certain amount of service for a period of time, in exchange for payment. For example, a consumer might pay an annual fee to receive issues of a digital program or online magazine, or ezine.
A vector graphic is created in both a quantity and a direction at the same time. It works on an sequence of statements or set of numerical coordinates on an xy axis. It works with a mathematical formula to draw or create curves and lines that combine to create geometric objects and text. A vector graphic can be shown in skeleton form with all nodes that make up the configuration of the line. These nodes can be moved or relocated to alter the shape of the graphic. So unlike raster images which are made up of pixels, vector graphics can be enlarged or reduced without any loss of clarity. Vector graphics can also be rasterised or converted to a raster format if required.
Vector images are easily edited by manipulating the nodes and points that make up the lines and curves in an object or image using vector based programs such as Inkscape, Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw etc.
Inkscape uses SVG format (Scalable Vector Graphic) as it’s primary file extension, however there are a range of other extensions available when saving files.
Vector programs allow users to create and edit vector graphics images interactively on a computer and save them in popular vector formats such as SVG, PDF, EPS
To convert a raster image stored as pixels into an outline or what is known as vector format.
Convert a raster image into a vector image through a conversion process with a program like Vector Magic. This process is required for illustrations. The scanned JPG illustration files have to be converted to a workable vector to be able to fill with colour and then save into the book pages. By converting them through a program such as Vector Magic, you can save as SVG files ready to open in Inkscape and work on directly, as if you had created them right there. Recommendation to use black and white for vectorising of all illustrations and fill with colour in Inkscape. There is a limit to file size on the online subscription version 1200pixel max however I’ve never had to convert anything over that size so do not need to purchase the full desktop version. They offer a two image limit free download with an email address but if you require multiple images you best subscribe. Or if just a few images its possible to do through mutliple email addresses if you have the time. If you’re a tight wad and go with the latter to save every penny you can, ensure you are happy with your result before downloading. Make any adjustments you can to detail before you click on download.
See 03 IMAGES section in DIY Guide for full details on Vectorising Raster Images
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